Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory®-Adolescent (MMPI®-A)

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory®-Adolescent (MMPI®-A)


An empirically-based measure of adolescent psychopathology, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory®-Adolescent (MMPI®-A) aids in problem identification, diagnosis, and treatment planning for youth.

An empirically-based measure of adolescent psychopathology, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory®-Adolescent (MMPI®-A) aids in problem identification, diagnosis, and treatment planning for youth.


Carolyn Williams

Age Range:

14-18 years


Online administration, Computer, CD, paper and pencil

Scoring Option:

Q-global™ Scoring & Reporting, Hand Scoring, Q™ Local Software, or Mail-in Scoring Service

Reading Level:

4.9 grade (Lexile average), 4.4 grade (Flesch-Kincaid)

Completion Time:

Approximately 60 minutes


478 True-False items


The MMPI-A normative sample consists of 1,620 adolescents (805 boys; 815 girls) between 14 and 18 years of age from several regions of the U.S., a balanced sample for region, rural-urban residence, and ethnicity.

Report Options:

MMPI-A Adolescent System Interpretive Reports, Extended Score Report

Publication Date:

1992 (Manual), 2006 (Manual Supplement)


University of Minnesota Press

An empirically based measure of adolescent psychopathology, the MMPI-A test contains adolescent-specific scales, and other unique features designed to make the instrument especially appropriate for today’s youth. Offering reports tailored to particular settings, the MMPI-A test helps provide relevant information to aid in problem identification, diagnosis, and treatment planning for youth (ages 14–18).

How to Use This Test

School, clinical, and counseling psychologists can use this self-report inventory to help:

  • Support diagnosis and treatment planning in a variety of settings.
  • Identify the root causes of potential problems early on.
  • Provide easy-to-understand information to share with parents, teachers, and others in the adolescent’s support network.
  • Guide professionals in making appropriate referrals.

Key Features

  • Item content and language are relevant for adolescents.
  • At the psychologist’s discretion, the clinical scales and three of the validity scales can be scored from the first 350 items, a significant savings in administration time.
  • Norms are adolescent-specific.
  • Scales help address problems clinicians are likely to see with adolescents, including family issues, eating disorders, and chemical dependency.


Validity Indicators
(Extended Score Report and The Minnesota Report)
? – Cannot Say (reported as a raw score)
VRIN – Variable Response Inconsistency
TRIN – True Response Inconsistency
F1 – Infrequency 1
F2 – Infrequency 2
F – Infrequency
L – Lie
K – Correction
Clinical Scales
(All Reports)
1 (Hs) Hypochondriasis
2 (D) Depression
3 (Hy) Hysteria
4 (Pd) Psychopathic Deviate
5 (Mf) Masculinity–Femininity
6 (Pa) Paranoia
7 (Pt) Psychasthenia
8 (Sc) Schizophrenia
9 (Ma) Hypomania
0 (Si) Social Introversion

Clinical Subscales — Harris-Lingoes and Social Introversion Subscales
(Extended Score Report and The Minnesota Report)

Harris-Lingoes Subscales
D1 – Subjective Depression
D2 – Psychomotor Retardation
D3 – Physical Malfunctioning
D4 – Mental Dullness
D5 – Brooding
Hy1 – Denial of Social Anxiety
Hy2 – Need for Affection
Hy3 – Lassitude–Malaise
Hy4 – Somatic Complaints
Hy5 – Inhibition of Aggression
Pd1 – Familial Discord
Pd2 – Authority Problems
Pd3 – Social Imperturbability
Pd4 – Social Alienation
Pd5 – Self-Alienation
Pa1 – Persecutory Ideas
Pa2 – Poignancy
Pa3 – Naiveté
Sc1 – Social Alienation
Sc2 – Emotional Alienation
Sc3 – Lack of Ego Mastery, Cognitive
Sc4 – Lack of Ego Mastery, Conative
Sc5 – Lack of Ego Mastery, Defective Inhibition
Sc6 – Bizarre Sensory Experiences
Ma1 – Amorality
Ma2 – Psychomotor Acceleration
Ma3 – Imperturbability
Ma4 – Ego Inflation

Social Introversion SubScales
Si1 – Shyness/Self-Consciousness
Si2 – Social Avoidance
Si3 – Alienation–Self and Others

Content Scales
(Extended Score Report and The Minnesota Report)
A-anx – Anxiety
A-obs – Obsessiveness
A-dep – Depression
A-hea – Health Concerns
A-aln – Alienation
A-biz – Bizarre Mentation
A-ang – Anger
A-cyn – Cynicism
A-con – Conduct Problems
A-lse – Low Self-Esteem
A-las – Low Aspiration
A-sod – Social Discomfort
A-fam – Family Problems
A-sch – School Problems
A-trt – Negative Treatment Indicators

Content Component Scales
(Extended Score Report and The Minnesota Report)

A-dep1 – Dysphoria
A-dep2 – Self-Depreciation
A-dep3 – Lack of Drive
A-dep4 – Suicidal Ideation
A-hea1 – Gastrointestinal Complaints
A-hea2 – Neurological Symptoms
A-hea3 – General Health Concerns
A-aln1 – Misunderstood
A-aln2 – Social Isolation
A-aln3 – Interpersonal Skepticism
A-biz1 – Psychotic Symptomatology
A-biz2 – Paranoid Ideation
A-ang1 – Explosive Behavior
A-ang2 – Irritability
A-cyn1 – Misanthropic Beliefs
A-cyn2 – Interpersonal Suspiciousness
A-con1 – Acting-Out Behaviors
A-con2 – Antisocial Behaviors
A-con3 – Negative Peer Group Influences
A-lse1 – Self-Doubt
A-lse2 – Interpersonal Submissiveness
A-las1 – Low Achievement Orientation
A-las2 – Lack of Initiative
A-sod1 – Introversion
A-sod2 – Shyness
A-fam1 – Familial Discord
A-fam2 – Familial Alienation
A-sch1 – School Conduct Problems
A-sch2 – Negative Attitudes
A-trt1 – Low Motivation
A-trt2 – Inabilitiy to Disclose

Supplementary Scales
(Extended Score Report and The Minnesota Report)

MAC-R – MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale–Revised
ACK – Alcohol/Drug Problem Acknowledgment
PRO – Alcohol/Drug Problem Proneness
IMM – Immaturity
A – Anxiety
R – Repression

PSY-5 (Personality Psychopathology Five) Scales

AGGR – Aggressiveness
PSYC – Psychoticism
DISC – Disconstraint
NEGE – Negative Emotionality/Neuroticism
INTR – Introversion/Low Positive Emotionality

Special Indices
(All Reports)
Welsh Code
Percent True and False
Response Percentages

Psychometric Information

The normative sample of the MMPI-A test consists of 805 adolescent males and 815 adolescent females from eight communities in the U.S. The sites were chosen to maximize the probability of obtaining a balanced sample of subjects according to geographic region, rural/urban residence, and ethnic background.

Interpretive Report

This comprehensive report helps provide an objective psychological picture of the adolescent through scale scores, special indices, and narrative statements.

Based on extensive experience in MMPI and MMPI-2 research and clinical practice, authors James N. Butcher, PhD, and Carolyn L. Williams, PhD, provide information on the following:

  • Symptomatic Behavior
  • Interpersonal Relationships
  • Behavioral Stability
  • Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations
  • A list of omitted items and suggested items for follow-up

The report presents the following scales:

  • Validity and Clinical Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Content Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Supplementary Scales profiled with alcohol/drug scales interpreted
  • PSY-5 Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Clinical Subscales (Harris-Lingoes and Social Introversion Subscales) (reported only)
  • Content Component Scales (reported only)

Sample Reports

Specialized reports are available for the following settings:

 Correctional Interpretive Report

 General Medical Interpretive Report

 Inpatient Mental Health Interpretive Report

 Outpatient Mental Health Interpretive Report

 School Interpretive Report

 Drug/Alcohol Treatment Interpretive Report

Extended Score Report

This report provides raw and T scores for all standard MMPI-A scales as well as the PSY-5 Scales, Content Component Subscales, and critical items.

Sample Report

 Extended Score Report

Basic Service Report

The Basic Service Report has been discontinued. See the MMPI-A Extended Score Report or the MMPI-A-RF Score Report for alternatives most similar to the Basic Service Report.

Scoring and Reporting Options

Q-global™ Web-based Administration, Scoring, and Reporting – Enables you to quickly assess and efficiently organize examinee information, generate scores, and produce accurate comprehensive reports all via the Web.

Q Local™ Scoring and Reporting Desktop Software – Enables you to score assessments, report results, and store and export data on your computer.

Mail-in Scoring Service – Specially designed answer sheets are mailed to Pearson and are processed within 24–48 hours of receipt; results returned via regular mail.

Manual Scoring – Administer assessments on answer sheets and score them yourself with answer keys and profile/record forms.

Getting Started with the Q-global Training Series

View these brief training modules about Q-global:


Frequently asked questions follow. Click on a question to see the response.

  • I am getting scores but no profile on an MMPI-A report for a 13-year-old. Is it valid?

  • What are the demographic default values for an MMPI-A administration?

  • Where can I find information on the critical items for the MMPI-A test?

  • Is there a section in the MMPI-A manual that compares the MMPI, MMPI-2, and MMPI-A items?

  • What is F1?

  • Why does the TRIN scale have a “T” or an “F” plotted above the mean (50T) on the profile?

  • What is the difference between the Depression scale in the Clinical Scales and the Depression scale in the Content Scales?

  • What effect does age have on MMPI-A scores?

  • How do I enter an Abbreviated MMPI-A test in Q Local software?

  • What scales can be scored if only the first 350 items are administered?

  • If I have a client answer the first 350 items and choose to print an Extended Score Report, will I have scorable validity indicators (L, F1, K), clinical scales, and clinical subscales (Harris-Lingoes and Si subscales)?

  • Where can I find information on the PSY-5 Scales and Content Component Scales for the MMPI-A test?

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