Author/s: Paul W. Burgess, Tim Shallice
Publication year: 1997
Age Range: 18 to 80 years
Administration: 15 minutes
Clinical assessment of executive functioning. Suitable for people with a wide range of problems (eg visual perception, movement) as it is entirely spoken.
Measure the executive functioning of individuals with special frontal lobe damage.
The Hayling and Brixton Tests measure the executive functioning of individuals with special frontal lobe damage. They are useful in the following situations:
- Where judgments about performance need to be related to estimated pre-morbid levels of cognitive ability
- Where the assessment of very able people find the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) easy
- When monitoring changes over time
- Where testing time is limited
The Hayling Sentence Completion Test The Hayling test consists of two sets of 15 sentences, each having the last word missing, yielding measures of response initiation speed, response suppression ability, and thinking time. This test is entirely spoken and is thus suitable for people with a wide range of problems such as those involving reading, visual perception or movement.
It takes approximately five minutes to administer yet yields three different measures of executive functioning which can be considered separately or combined into an overall score. In the first section the examiner reads each sentence aloud and the participant has to simply complete the sentences, yielding a simple measure of response initiation speed. In the second section the subject is asked to complete the sentences with a word that does not fit, giving measures of response suppression ability and thinking time.
The Brixton Spatial Anticipation Test The Brixton test is entirely spoken and is suitable for people with reading, visual perception, or movement problems. It takes approximately five minutes to administer and yields three different measures of executive functioning which can be considered separately or combined into an overall score. For detailed clinical decision-making, age and age-and-pre-morbid-IQ cut-off scores are provided.
Probably the most well-known situation in which dysexecutive patients have problems is when they are asked to detect rules in sequences of stimuli. The Brixton Test measures this ability within a format that is easy to administer and is designed to be pleasant for the subject. The Brixton Test is perceptually simple and as it does not require a verbal response it is appropriate for those suffering from a wide range of deficits such as those involving speech production or reading.
Scaled scores can be derived for each measure, enabling the clinician to build a pattern of their client’s deficits. Normative data are presented for all measures, and, for diagnostic decision-making, age related cut-off scores are given together with separate age and pre-morbid IQ cut-off scores
Administration Test items are quick and easy to administer, and readily acceptable to subjects. The tests can be given singly or in combination depending upon testing time, and are complementary to the BADS test battery.
Hayling and Brixton Tests – References
Bielak, A. A. M., Mansueti, L., Strauss, E. & Dixon, R. A. (2006). Performance on the Hayling and Brixton tests in older adults: Norms and correlates. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 141-149
De Almeida Rocca, C. C., de Macedo-Soares, M. B., Gorenstein, C., Tamada, R. S., Isller, C. K., Dias, R. S., de Almeida, K. M., Schwartzmann, A.M., Amaral, J. A., & Lafer, B. (2007). Verbal fluency dysfunction in euthymic bipolar patients: A controlled study. Journal of Affective Disorders, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online.
De Frias, C. M., Dixon, R.A., & Strauss, E. (2006). Structure of Four Executive Functioning Tests in Healthy Older Adults. Neuropsychology, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 206-214
Rochester, L., Hetherington, V., Jones, D., Nieuwboer, A., Willems, A., Kwakkel, G., & Wegen, E. V. (2005). The Effect of External Rhythmic Cues (Auditory and Visual) on Walking During a Functional Task in Homes of People With Parkinson’s Disease. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 86, Issue 5, Pages 999-1006
Rochester, L., Hetherington, V., Jones, D., Nieuwboer, A., Willems, A., Kwakkel, G and Wegen, E. V. (2004). Attending to the task: Interference effects of functional tasks on walking in Parkinson’s disease and the roles of cognition, depression, fatigue, and balance. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 85, Issue 10, Pages 1578-1585
Wood, R. L., & Liossi, C. (2005). Long-term neuropsychological impact of brief occupational exposure to organic solvents. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, Volume 20, Issue 5, Pages 655-665
Wood, R.L and Liossi, C. (2006). The ecological validity of executive tests in a severely brain injured sample. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 429-437
Listed are a sample of references that cite Hayling and Brixton. Pearson Assessment has listed these papers for your information. We take no responsibility for the content therein.
Includes manual, stimulus book and a pack of 25 scoring sheets in a bag