Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory®-2 (MMPI®-2) Hand-Scoring and Administration Materials

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory®-2 (MMPI®-2) Hand-Scoring and Administration Materials

Description

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory®-2 Hand-Scoring and Administration Materials includes all components needed to administer and score MMPI®-2.

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory®-2 Hand-Scoring and Administration Materials includes all components needed to administer and score MMPI®-2.

Author:

James N. Butcher, PhD

Reading Level:

5th grade (Lexile average), 4.6 grade (Flesch-Kincaid)

Completion Time:

60-90 minutes

Forms:

567 True-False items

Norms:

A nationally representative community sample of adult men and women (1,138 males and 1,462 females between the ages of 18 and 80 from several regions and diverse communities within the U.S.)

Report Option:

Extended Score Reports, Adult Clinical Interpretive Reports, Forensic Settings Reports, Personnel Interp. and Adjustment Ratings Reports

Publication Date:

1989, 2001 (revised), updated 2003 and 2009

Publisher:

University of Minnesota Press

Relevant to a range of contemporary applications, the MMPI-2 instrument is the most widely used and widely researched test of adult psychopathology. Used by clinicians to assist with the diagnosis of mental disorders and the selection of appropriate treatment methods, the MMPI-2 test continues to help meet the assessment needs of mental health professionals in an ever-changing environment.

Link to the Specific MMPI-2 Reports & Materials Pages

Numerous Uses

The MMPI-2 test’s contemporary normative sample and extensive research base make it the assessment of choice for a wide variety of settings. The test can be used to help:

  • Assess major symptoms of social and personal maladjustment.
  • Identify suitable candidates for high-risk public safety positions.
  • Give a strong empirical foundation for a clinician’s expert testimony.
  • Assess medical patients and design effective treatment strategies, including chronic pain management.
  • Evaluate participants in substance abuse programs and select appropriate treatment approaches.
  • Support college and career counseling recommendations.
  • Provide valuable insight for marriage and family counseling.

Key Features

  • Descriptive and diagnostic information relevant to today’s clients.

    Tailored reports present interpretive information for specific settings to help meet a wide range of needs.

  • Nationally representative normative sample.

    A community sample of adult men and women consists of 1,138 males and 1,462 females between the ages of 18 and 80 from several regions and diverse communities within the U.S.

  • Flexible administration and scoring.

    The test can be administered in several formats: computer, CD, or paper-and-pencil. To help meet the needs of more individuals, the MMPI-2 test can be administered in English, Spanish, Hmong, and French for Canada.

Scales

Validity Indicators

? – Cannot Say (reported as a raw score only, not plotted)
VRIN – Variable Response Inconsistency
TRIN – True Response Inconsistency
F – Infrequency
FB – Back F
FP – Infrequency–Psychopathology
FBS – Symptom Validity Scale (Extended Score Report)
L – Lie
K – Correction
S – Superlative Self-Presentation
Superlative Self-Presentation Subscales
S1 – Beliefs in Human Goodness
S2 – Serenity
S3 – Contentment with Life
S4 – Patience/Denial of Irritability
S5 – Denial of Moral Flaws

Clinical Scales
1 Hs – Hypochondriasis
2 D – Depression
3 Hy – Hysteria
4 Pd – Psychopathic Deviate
5 Mf – Masculinity–Femininity
6 Pa – Paranoia
7 Pt – Psychasthenia
8 Sc – Schizophrenia
9 Ma – Hypomania
0 Si – Social Introversion

Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales
(Extended Score Report)
RCd – dem – Demoralization
RC1 – som – Somatic Complaints
RC2 – lpe – Low Positive Emotions
RC3 – cyn – Cynicism
RC4 – asb – Antisocial Behavior
RC6 – per – Ideas of Persecution
RC7 – dne – Dysfunctional Negative Emotions
RC8 – abx – Aberrant Experiences
RC9 – hpm – Hypomanic Activation

Clinical Subscales
(Extended Score Report and The Minnesota Reports)
Harris-Lingoes Subscales
D1 – Subjective Depression
D2 – Psychomotor Retardation
D3 – Physical Malfunctioning
D4 – Mental Dullness
D5 – Brooding
Hy1 – Denial of Social Anxiety
Hy2 – Need for Affection
Hy3 – Lassitude-Malaise
Hy4 – Somatic Complaints
Hy5 – Inhibition of Aggression
Pd1 – Familial Discord
Pd2 – Authority Problems
Pd3 – Social Imperturbability
Pd4 – Social Alienation
Pd5 – Self-Alienation
Pa1 – Persecutory Ideas
Pa2 – Poignancy
Pa3 – Naiveté
Sc1 – Social Alienation
Sc2 – Emotional Alienation
Sc3 – Lack of Ego Mastery, Cognitive
Sc4 – Lack of Ego Mastery, Conative
Sc5 – Lack of Ego Mastery, Defective Inhibition
Sc6 – Bizarre Sensory Experiences
Ma1 – Amorality
Ma2 – Psychomotor Acceleration
Ma3 – Imperturbability
Ma4 – Ego Inflation
Social Introversion Subscales
Si1 – Shyness/Self-Consciousness
Si2 – Social Avoidance
Si3 – Alienation – Self and Others

Content Scales
(Extended Score Report, The Minnesota Reports)
ANX – Anxiety
FRS – Fears
OBS – Obsessiveness
DEP – Depression
HEA – Health Concerns
BIZ – Bizarre Mentation
ANG – Anger
CYN – Cynicism
ASP – Antisocial Practices
TPA – Type A
LSE – Low Self-Esteem
SOD – Social Discomfort
FAM – Family Problems
WRK – Work Interference
TRT – Negative Treatment Indicators

Content Component Scales 
(Extended Score Report and The Minnesota Reports)
Fears Subscales
FRS1 – Generalized Fearfulness
FRS2 – Multiple Fears
Depression Subscales
DEP1 – Lack of Drive
DEP2 – Dysphoria
DEP3 – Self-Depreciation
DEP4 – Suicidal Ideation
Health Concerns Subscales
HEA1 – Gastrointestinal Symptoms
HEA2 – Neurological Symptoms
HEA3 – General Health Concerns
Bizarre Mentation Subscales
BIZ1 – Psychotic Symptomatology
BIZ2 – Schizotypal Characteristics
Anger Subscales
ANG1 – Explosive Behavior
ANG2 – Irritability
Cynicism Subscales
CYN1 – Misanthropic Beliefs
CYN2 – Interpersonal Suspiciousness
Antisocial Practices Subscales
ASP1 – Antisocial Attitudes
ASP2 – Antisocial Behavior
Type A Subscales
TPA1 – Impatience
TPA2 – Competitive Drive
Low Self-Esteem Subscales
LSE1 – Self-Doubt
LSE2 – Submissiveness
Social Discomfort
SOD1 – Introversion
SOD2 – Shyness
Family Problems
FAM1 – Family Discord
FAM2 – Familial Alienation
Negative Treatment Indicators
TRT1 – Low Motivation
TRT2 – Inability to Disclose

Supplementary Scales
(Extended Score Report, The Minnesota Reports)
Personality Psychopathology Five Scales (PSY-5)
AGGR – Aggressiveness
PSYC – Psychoticism
DISC – Disconstraint
NEGE – Negative Emotionality/Neuroticism
INTR – Introversion/Low Positive Emotionality
Broad Personality Characteristics
A – Anxiety
R – Repression
Es – Ego Strength
Do – Dominance
Re – Social Responsibility
Generalized Emotional Distress
Mt – College Maladjustment
PK – Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder–Keane
MDS – Marital Distress
Behavioral Dyscontrol
Ho – Hostility
O-H – Overcontrolled Hostility
MAC-R – MacAndrew–Revised
AAS – Addiction Admission
APS – Addiction Potential
Gender Role
GM – Gender Role – Masculine
GF – Gender Role – Feminine

Special Indices and Scores
Welsh Code
F–K Dissimulation Index
Percent True and Percent False
Average Profile Elevation
P-A-I-N Classification (only with Adult Clinical Interpretive Report)
Gass Head Injury Items (Forensic Report only if applicable)

Psychometric Information

The MMPI-2 normative samples consist of 1,138 males and1,462 females from diverse geographic regions and communities across the United States. Individuals between the ages of 18 and 80 were recruited for inclusion in the samples. The revised MMPI-2 Manual for Administration, Scoring and Interpretation describes the distributions of age, geographic location, ethnic origin, educational attainment, marital status, occupation, and income level in the male and female samples.

MMPI-2 Non-Gendered Norms

Non-gendered T scores appear in the Revised Personnel System, 3rd Edition Reports, the Reports for Forensic Settings, and the Extended Score Report. It is possible to suppress the non-gendered T scores in printing these reports. A test monograph covering the development and use of the non-gendered norms is available from Pearson.

MMPI-2 Non-K-Corrected Norms

A profile of non-K-corrected T scores is available only in the Extended Score Report. It is provided in addition to the standard K-corrected Validity and Clinical Scales Profile. It is possible to suppress the non-K-corrected T scores when printing the Extended Score Report. Click here to link to a selected bibliography on MMPI-2 non-K-corrected T scores.

Report Options

Extended Score Report

This report presents the following MMPI-2 scales:

  • Validity and Clinical Scales — profiled
  • Non-K-corrected Validity and Clinical Scales — profiled (optional)
  • Clinical Subscales (Harris-Lingoes and Social Introversion subscales) — scale scores reported only
  • Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales — profiled
  • Content Scales — profiled
  • Content Component Scales — scale scores reported only
  • Supplementary Scales (includes the PSY-5 Scales) — profiled

Critical items and omitted items are also provided.

Note. The Basic Service Report was discontinued in 2010.

The Minnesota Report: Adult Clinical System, 4th Edition Interpretive Report

Provides a comprehensive psychological picture of a client. This report presents the following MMPI-2 scales:

  • Validity and Clinical Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Content Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Supplementary Scales profiled with alcohol/drug scales interpreted
  • PSY-5 Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Superlative Self-Presentation Scale reported only
  • Clinical Subscales (Harris-Lingoes and Social Introversion Subscales) reported only
  • Content Component Scales reported only

Lists of critical items and omitted items are also provided.

In addition, the report provides an objective narrative assessment of your client’s responses and compares the profile data to data from setting-specific research samples. The settings that are considered in the interpretation are:

  • Outpatient Mental Health
  • Inpatient Mental Health
  • General Medical
  • Chronic Pain
  • Correctional
  • College Counseling
  • Alcohol & Drug Treatment

The narrative report contains the following sections: Profile Validity, Symptomatic Patterns, Profile Frequency, Profile Stability, Interpersonal Relations, Diagnostic Considerations, and Treatment Considerations.

The Minnesota Report: Revised Personnel System, 3rd Edition Interpretive Report

This report presents the following MMPI-2 scales:

  • Validity and Clinical Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Content Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Supplementary Scales profiled with alcohol/drug scales interpreted
  • PSY-5 Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Superlative Self-Presentation Scale reported only
  • Clinical Subscales (Harris-Lingoes and Social Introversion Subscales) reported only
  • Content Component Scales reported only

In addition, the report compares the profile data to data from occupation-specific research samples and provides occupation-specific mean profiles. The occupations that are considered in the interpretation are:

  • Nuclear Power Facility
  • Law Enforcement
  • Airline Pilots
  • Medical and Psychology Students
  • Firefighters/Paramedics
  • Seminary Students
  • Other

Note: Air Traffic Controller was discontinued in 2001.

The narrative report contains the following sections: Profile Validity, Personal Adjustment, Interpersonal Relations, Profile Frequency, Contemporary Personnel Base Rate Information, Profile Stability, Possible Employment Problems, Content Themes, and Work Dysfunction Items.

The Minnesota Report: Revised Personnel System, 3rd Edition Adjustment Rating Report

This report presents the following MMPI-2 scales:

  • Validity and Clinical Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Content Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Supplementary Scales profiled with alcohol/drug scales interpreted
  • PSY-5 Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Superlative Self-Presentation Scale reported only
  • Clinical Subscales (Harris-Lingoes and Social Introversion Subscales) reported only
  • Content Component Scales reported only

In addition, the report rates the applicant on five important work-related dimensions: Openness to Evaluation, Social Facility, Addiction Potential, Stress Tolerance, and Overall Adjustment. Content themes and specific Work Dysfunction items are also reported.

The Minnesota Report: Reports for Forensic Settings

Each report in this series presents the following MMPI-2 scales:

  • Validity and Clinical Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Content Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Supplementary Scales profiled with alcohol/drug scales interpreted
  • PSY-5 Scales profiled and interpreted
  • Superlative Self-Presentation Scale reported only
  • Clinical Subscales (Harris-Lingoes and Social Introversion Subscales) reported only
  • Content Component Scales reported only

Lists of omitted items and Gass Head Injury items (Personal Injury Neurological setting only) are also provided.

In addition, this report series is customized for six forensic settings. Each of the reports provides an objective narrative assessment of your client’s responses and compares the profile data to data from setting-specific research samples. The settings are:

  • Child Custody
  • Personal Injury
  • Personal Injury (Neurological)
  • Pre-trial Criminal
  • General Corrections
  • Competency/Commitment

The narrative includes the following sections: Profile Validity, Symptomatic Patterns, Profile Frequency, Profile Stability, Interpersonal Relations, Mental Health Considerations, and Setting-Specific Considerations.

Scoring and/or Reporting Options

Q-global™ Web-based Administration, Scoring, and Reporting – Enables you to quickly assess and efficiently organize examinee information, generate scores, and produce accurate comprehensive reports all via the Web.

Q Local™ Scoring and Reporting Desktop Software – Enables you to score assessments, report results, and store and export data on your computer.

Mail-in Scoring Service – Specially designed answer sheets are mailed to Pearson for processing within 24–48 hours of receipt; results returned via regular mail.

Hand Scoring – Administer assessments on answer sheets and score them yourself with answer keys and profile/record forms.

Training

These training slides provide an overview of the MMPI-2, including a description of the scales comprising the test, as well as information about the materials available to score and interpret test results.

Questions

Frequently asked questions follow. Click on a question to see the response.

Invalid Reports and Demographic Defaults

  • What are the demographic default values (initial settings) for an MMPI-2 administration?

  • My Extended Score Report is invalid, but it doesn’t say that on the report. Why not?

  • How does the Minnesota Report deal with invalid records?

Norms

  • Are different norms used for the different settings?

  • Are there norms for different cultures for the MMPI-2 test?

New Scales and Developments

  • What are the PSY-5 scales and where can I find information about them?

  • Why were the validity scales re-ordered?

  • Why were the supplementary scales revised and re-ordered?

  • Which MMPI-2 reports contain non-gendered norms?

  • Are non-gendered norms available for all MMPI-2 scales?

  • Are the non-gendered T scores K-corrected?

  • Why were the non-gendered T scores revised?

  • Where can I find more information on the non-gendered norms?

  • Which MMPI-2 reports contain non-K-corrected T Scores?

  • If I don’t want to use the non-gendered T scores, can they be suppressed?

  • If I don’t want to use the non-K-corrected T scores, can they be suppressed?

  • Why were non-K-corrected T scores re-introduced in the Extended Score Report?

Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales

  • Do the RC Scales replace the Clinical Scales?

  • Are the Clinical Scales less valid than the RC Scales?

  • How should I incorporate the RC Scales into my evaluations?

  • How do I explain discrepancies between what the Clinical Scales and the RC Scales report?

  • What kind of documentation is available for the RC Scales?

  • What is the research base for the RC Scales?

  • How were the RC Scales developed?

  • Do the RC scales contain the same items as the Clinical Scales? Which items were dropped, were there new items included?

  • Do the RC Scales overlap?

  • What are the intercorrelations of the RC Scales, and, in comparison, of the Clinical Scales?

  • What are the test-retest reliabilities of the RC Scales?

  • What are the internal consistencies of the RC Scales?

  • Why don’t Scales 5 and 0 have corresponding RC Scales?

  • Can I apply existing Clinical Scale code-type research to the RC Scales?

  • What is the Demoralization Scale?

  • Do I use the traditional cut-offs to evaluate elevations on the RC Scales?

  • Are the RC Scales K-corrected? Why not?

  • Clinical Scale 3 and RC3 don’t measure the same thing and are not highly correlated. Why is that?

  • The RC Scales seem to overlap with the Content Scales. What are the differences between the RC Scales and the Content Scales?

  • What Is the difference between Content Scale Cynicism and RC3?

  • Are the RC Scales useful with non-clinical populations that typically produce within-normal-limits profiles, like personnel/employee testing and child custody evaluations?

  • How do the Clinical Scales and the RC Scales differ in how they assess psychopathology?

  • What is a well-defined code type (for the Clinical Scales)?

  • How do I interpret an MMPI-2 with a well-defined and elevated code type in the absence of elevations on the RC Scales? Should I rely on the code type?

  • How do I interpret an elevation on one or more RC Scales in the absence of any elevations on the Clinical Scales?

Scales Not Offered and Discontinuations

  • Why were the Wiener-Harmon Subtle-Obvious Subscales removed from the Extended Score Report?

  • Why is the Schlenger PTSD scale (PS) no longer available on the MMPI-2 test?

  • Why was the occupation “Air Traffic Controller” discontinued in the Personnel Reports?

  • Important information regarding the discontinuation of The Minnesota Report: Alcohol and Drug Treatment System (product code 51443).

  • With the discontinuation of the Alcohol/Drug Treatment System, what happens to my unused reports?

  • With the discontinuation of the Alcohol and Drug Treatment System, how do I reprint these reports?

Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation Help and Other Information

  • What is the Minnesota Report?

  • Why are there different settings for the Minnesota Report? Do the reports differ for the various settings? What information is used to develop different personality interpretations?

  • Can the Minnesota Report computer printout serve as a complete and independent psychological report on a client?

  • Where can I find further information about the Minnesota Report?

  • What is the difference between the Depression scale in the Clinical Scales and the Depression scale in the Content Scales?

  • What is the difference between the MAC-R scale and the Addiction Potential Scale?

  • Where can I find information about the content validity, construct validity, and criterion validity of the MMPI-2 instrument?

  • Are there tables in the MMPI-2 manual with conversion data for item order from MMPI items to MMPI-2 items?

  • Does the MMPI-2 instrument measure PTSD?

  • What are the differences between the MMPI-2 manual and the user’s guides?

  • Can adolescents take the MMPI-2 assessment and produce valid results?

  • Is the MMPI-2 instrument able to discriminate between neuropsychological disorders and conversion disorders/somatization disorders?

  • Are all MMPI-2 scales copyrighted?

  • Is the MMPI-2 instrument appropriate for use with chronic pain patients?

  • What does the chronic pain classification 1,2,3,4,0 mean?

  • Should I use the MMPI-2 instrument in light of the ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) and the Civil Rights Act?

  • Can I still use the administrations I have for the MMPI-2 Extended Score PLUS Report (product code 51439)?

  • Where can I find information about the mean profiles that are provided in the Personnel System, 3rd Edition reports?

  • My VRIN and TRIN answer keys don’t match-up with the answer sheets. Why not?